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Wednesday, 14 March 2012

Understanding the concept of SQL Server Failover Cluster

Before getting hands on experience in SQL server on failover cluster , I used to read many article about failover clustering. Unfortunately I was not able to digest the concept till I wet my hands.I will keep this point in my mind while explaining the failover cluster in this post.

What is a windows Cluster ? A cluster is a group of independent computer systems, referred to as nodes, working together as a unified computing resource. When we say unified computing , it does not mean that a single application can access the resources (cpu/memory) of multiple computer at any point of time. A cluster provides a single name for clients to use it services.There are two type of cluster:

Network Load Balancing Cluster : A Network Load Balancing Cluster (NLB) distribute the load (request from the client)  to the different nodes which are part of the cluster based on predefined rules.The  client application has to communicate to a single cluster IP address (virtual server)  and client does not know which node in the cluster exactly serving its request.Network Load Balancing cluster helps to enhance the the availability and scalability of  application. We are not going to talk much about this on this post.

Fail over Cluster:  Failover cluster is a collection of servers that by working together increase the availability of applications and services that run on the cluster. It can be  described as a technology that automatically allows one physical server to take over the tasks and responsibilities of another physical server that has failed.A failover cluster provides high availability for cluster aware application like SQL server ,exchange server,etc. The major difference between NLB cluster and failover cluster is, failover cluster will not help to improve the scalability of the application. It can only support high availability.

There are many misunderstanding among people about the advantage of having SQL server on a failover cluster environment. Below table will give a clear picture about the capability of SQL server on cluster environment.


To understand the failover cluster it is important to familiar with the terminologies. Let us have look on the terminologies used in the windows clustering.

Server Node: Physical node with operating system that support windows clustering. Each server node should have minimum two network card for public and private network.Minimum one local hard disk is required for OS and other application binaries.

Private Storage: Local disks are referred as private storage. There will be minimum of one private disk for OS and SQL binaries.Server node can have a additional local disk for bigger page file.
Shared Disk Array: Each server needs to be attached to the shared external storage.In non-clustered SQL server instance, databases (system/user/resource) are store on locally attached disk storage but in clustered SQL server instances databases are store data on a shared disk array.That mean all the server nodes in the cluster setup are physically connected to the disk array.This shared storage configuration allow application to failover between server in the cluster.

Quorum Disk: Quorum is the cluster's configuration file.This file (quorum.log) resides in the the quorum disk (one disk from shared disk array).Quorum is the main interpreter between all nodes. It stores latest cluster configuration and resource data. This helps the other nodes to take ownership when one node goes down.
In real life, it is like emergency contact number and other medical information in your wallet which help others to take action in case of emergency.

Public Network and Private Network: Each server needs at least two network cards. Typically, one is the public network and the other is a private network between the nodes. The private network is used for internal communication of cluster.This is referred as heart beat. Public network is used to connect the external world or intranet.

Heart Beat: Heart beat is health check mechanism in cluster A single UDP packet sent between nodes in the cluster via the private network to confirm that  nodes are still online. By default cluster service will wait five seconds(one heart beat sent in every second)  before considering a cluster node to be unreachable.

Looks Alive check:Looks alive check is a basic resource health check to verify that the service(SQL service in our context) is running properly.To perform this , cluster service queries the windows service control manager to check the status of the service.By default looks alive check will happen in every five seconds.

Is Alive check: An exhaustive check to verify that a resource is running properly. If this check fails, the resource is moved offline and the failover process is triggered. During the Is alive check  the cluster service connects to the SQL server instance and execute select @@SERVERNAME.It will check only the SQL server instance availability and does not check the availability of user databases.

Failover: Clusters service monitor the health of the nodes in the cluster setup and the resources in the cluster. In the event of a server/resource failure, the cluster service  re-starts the failed server's workload on one of the remaining servers based on possible owners settings. The process of detecting failures and restarting the application on another server in the cluster is known as failover .


Virtual Server:Virtual server consist of a network name and IP address to which the client connect.This helps the client to connect the service  which hosted in the cluster environment with out knowing the details of the server node on which the service is running.In simple word , virtual server helps the client application to connect the SQL server  instance with out changing the connection string in case of failover of SQL instance.

Possible Owners :Possible owners are the server nodes on which cluster group (in our context SQL instance) can failover

Preferred Owner: Preferred owner is the server node which best suited to running an application or group.

Cluster Setup: Below schema diagram will give a clear picture about the windows cluster setup.























This picture depicts  two  node cluster setup.At this stage Node A and Node B will have only OS and windows cluster service.One of the disk from cluster disk will be designated as the quorum disk. This setup basically done by windows administrators and storage specialists.On top of this,  DBA's install  and configure the SQL instances. We are not going talk about the SQL server installation on cluster environment on this post.

To make it more clear, let us describe our cluster environment as given below.

















Let us look into the pictorial representation current setup.
Fig 1





















From the Fig-1, we can see that INST1 and INST2 are installed on both physical node , but at any point of time one instance will be online only in one node.At this stage INST1 is running on physical node Pnode-A and INST2 is running on node Pnode-B.The cluster disk D and E will be visible in the node Pnode-A and F and G will be visible in the node Pnode-B.The request from the App1 will be routed through the virtual server A and landed in Pnode-A where the INST1 is running.In the same way the request from the App2 will be routed through the virtual Server B and landed in Pnode-B where the INST2 is running.

Let us see what will happen if there is a hardware/network failure in Pnode-A. Fig 2 depicts the failover of  scenario of INST1 to Pnode-B.

Fig 2





















Now the INST1 went offline in Pnode-A and came online Pnode-B.The connection from the App1 will be routed through the same virtual Server A and landed in Pnode-B.All four cluster disk will be visible in Pnode-B and only C (Local disk) will be accessible from Pnode-A. Note that even after the failover of INST1,App1 will be connecting to the virtual server A.It helps to make the failover transparent to the application.

Thank you for reading this article. Please feel free to pass your comments to improve the quality of the post. To follow this blog visit my Facebook Page





127 comments:

  1. Nice post Nelson, keep it up!

    ReplyDelete
  2. that is a nice post on one of my topic of interest. There is some excellent database related stuff here also - distributed database system, Normalization, codd's rules etc. explained so nicely : crazy4db.blogspot.in

    ReplyDelete
  3. Your definition can lead to misinterpretation.

    A cluster is a group of independent computer systems, referred to as nodes, working together as a unified computing resource

    "Working together as a unified computing resource" can lead to the interpretation or assumption that, given a two-node cluster, both physical servers will work together as a unified computing resource. Another way to say this would be that programs would have access to processors and RAM on both servers.

    This is NOT the case.

    Programs and services run on one and only one server on the cluster. If the cluster node is inaccessible, the programs/services running on the inaccessible node will be spun up on another cluster node. At no time will a service or program run across multiple nodes in the cluster.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I agree with you and made slight modification in the statement

      Delete
  4. not a bad cover of clustering but you should note the following

    vserver-a 10.23.23.30
    vserver-b 10.23.23.31

    in the above you have not mentioned the values used for the Windows cluster.
    Whilst a failure in the public network will initiate a failover, a failure in the heartbeat network will not
    regards
    Perry

    ReplyDelete
  5. "All four cluster disk will be visible in Pnode-B and only C (Local disk) will be accessible from Pnode-A" --> This should be reflected in the graph.

    Good article!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you for the article. It describes things in very simple terms and it's a very good introductory article. I'm very new at this. Could you clarify exactly where the Virtual Servers are defined/set-up and how a virtual server may go down?

      Thank you.

      Delete
  6. What are the advantages of using clustering instead of availability groups?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. availability groups have down time more compared to clustering and automatic fail over will be great comparing to others

      Delete
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  8. Such a nice article. Easy enough to understand.

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  10. Its really good to know about that the procedure and the other key features mentioned here are quite considerable and most necessary as well, would be so far better idea to have these information to run the system in a systematic manner.

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  11. Thank you for the article. Its really good, but i need some troubleshooting steps related to this articles. If for example nodeA goes down, With in few minutes noteA and noteB will be available in noteB. But my Query is how we will get back this NoteA to the original position and what are the basic steps that we need to be taken to get back the NodeA to the original position.

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  13. Thanks for article..its really helpful...especially for beginners

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  14. Thanks a lot to you for the article. Its really good, and helpful for me to understand the basic concept regarding Clustering.

    ReplyDelete
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  16. The diagram is misleading and "The cluster disk D and E will be visible in the node Pnode-A and F and G will be visible in the node Pnode-B" is wrong.
    Every node in the cluster can equally access shared disk storage. In Failover Cluster environment only one node is
    active at a time and is connected to shared disk storage.

    ReplyDelete
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  30. By Reading this anyone can understand easily about 2 node Cluster. Many Thanks. You can also mention the Network IP /Network name in fig 1

    ReplyDelete
  31. In SQL cluster environment, when we create sql jobs, do we need to create job on both nodes individually?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. No we will create it in only once (in an instance level not on node). Job is not part of the node it is part of the instance.

      Delete
  32. Can you let me know how many IPs are required for cluster configuration , Minimum is 5 is there any max limit , if so for what all, can you explain me in detail regarding that.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. For a two node cluster service , you need minimum 5 IPs. 2 for SQL instances (Logical IP address), two for physical nodes and one for cluster.You may need more than 5, if you are planning install more than two instance of SQL server in a two node cluster. Hope this answer to your question

      Delete
    2. We need seven IP addresses for two node cluster:
      - Two IPs are for two Physical Nodes.
      - Two IPs are for Private network (for heart beats).
      - Two IPs are for Public network (One for windows cluster virtual name and other for SQL cluster virtual name)
      - One IP address for MSDTC

      Delete
    3. Please let me know how may IP addresses are needed for 2 Node Active/Active & 4 Node Active/Active

      Delete
  33. Praveen Kumar k19 May 2015 at 00:32

    Its very nice article, one query from my side , if the shared disk only fails what is the procedure and what is the best approach ?

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  34. What is the network diagram software you used to create that network diagram ? Is it packet tracer or creately ?

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  37. Thanks for sharing this helpful article. I have found another post on here that reference: - http://www.sqlserverlogexplorer.com/introduction-to-sql-server-failover-clustering/

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  38. can we practice and install clustering on laptop in home ? just to get hands on experience ?

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  39. i want to clustering setup on my home laptop, is it possible ?

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    التغليف لكل ما هو قابل للكسر، من خلال التنظيف ومن ثم التغليف بورق جرائد ومن ثم نقوم برصهم بالصناديق ذات الحجم المناسب، فلا نكتفي بهذا فحسب بل نقوم بوضع فواصل بين كل قطعة والأخرى باستخدام الإسفنج. شركة نقل اثاث بالاحساء

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  78. شركة نقل اثاث بالخبر
    دور شركة نقل أثاث بالقطيف في عملية نقل العفش شركة نقل عفش بالخبر
    شركة نقل اثاث بالقطيف
    أن العشوائية والعمل بدون تخطيط ووعي يكون مصيرهُ النهائي الفشل التام لا محالة من ذلك، لذلك فقد عمدت شركة نقل عفش بالخبر على أن تعمل وفقًا لاستراتيجية مُحددة شركة نقل عفش بالقطيف
    شركة نقل اثاث برأس تنورة

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  79. يمكن تعريف الشحن المحدود الذي تقدمه شركه نقل اثاث بالدمام بكونه ما يقتصر على نقل ما قد يحتاجه العميل من أثاث كالأجهزة الكهربائية أو الأثاث الخشبية حتى وإن كان لقطع غيرة ومدودة منه. شركة نقل عفش بالدمام
    شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
    فريق عمل شركة نقل عفش بالدمام نعرف جميعًا أن موظفي وعُمال الشركة هم الأيد المُحركة لها، والتي تلعب الدور الأكبر في مدى نجاحها واستمراره أرخص شركة نقل عفش بالدمام

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  80. ان حشرة البق تشكل خطورة كبيرة علي المنازل وحصوصا الاطفال لذلك يمكنك ايجاد الحل الامثل من خلال شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام حيث تضم الشركة افضل الخبراء فهي افضل شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام
    شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالدمام
    افضل شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالقطيف شركة  انوار طيبة ونصلك اينما كنت نستخدم افضل المبيدات للقضاء علي الحشرات النمل والصراصير وبق الفراش والوزع والنمل الابيض وجميع الحشرات الزاحفة ,مكافحة جميع انواع الحشرات باستخدام افضل المبيدات المستوردة والمحلية لضمان القضاء علي الحشرات مع الضمان وخصومات هائلة شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالقطيف
    شركات مكافحة حشرات ورش مبيدات بالدمام هل تبحث عن شركة مكافحة حشرات بالسعودية هل لديك نمل في المطبخ او حشرة البق في الخشب؟ هل عندك صراصير او نمل او فئران وتفسد عليك حياتك في منزلك او شركتك؟ لا تقلق فهناك العديد من شركات مكافحة الحشرات في السعودية وأيضا يوجد العديد من شركة رش مبيدات ومكافحة الحشرات بالدمام شركة رش مبيدات بالدمام

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  81. شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام عندما تريد نظافه الكنب الموجود بمنزلك لاتنزعج اليك أفضل شركه تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام باحدث المكينات وافضل طرق التنظيف افضل شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام نحن بعون الله من اكبر شركات التنظيف الكنب والمجالس بالدمام والخبر والقطيف والجبيل متخصصون فى مجال تنظيف جميع الاقمشه من ستائر ومجالس شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام
    شركة غسيل كنب بالدمام
    افضل شركة تنظيف بالدمام و بالخبر ارخص الاسعار ، لنظافة المنازل و الشقق اهمية كبيرة في صحة الاسرة ، ولذلك اخترنا في الوطنية للنظافة بالمنطقة الشرقية افضل شركة تنظيف بالدمام و بالخبر ان نقدم لاهل الدمام والخبر خدمات تنظيف شاملة مع التعقيم لكافة مكونات المنزل العصري من اثاث او مفروشات او حمامات و مطابخ وتنظيف سيراميك وجلى بلاط شركة تنظيف كنب بالقطيف

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  82. انوار طيبة أفضل شركة نظافة بالدمام متخصصة في مجال التنظيف بالدمام والمناطق المجاورة فنحن شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام نقوم أيضاً بتنظيف (فلل– شقق- منازل- بيوت- المجالس- العمائر- الشركات – المطاعم – الفنادق- المحال التجارية) وجميع الأماكن التي تحتاج للتنظيف، وتقوم الشركة بتنظيف منزلك بأحدث الماكينات شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام
    تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام
    شركة تنظيف بالخبر تقدم أسعار مميزة لعملائها فهي أرخص شركة تنظيف مكيفات حيث تقوم بتنظيف المنازل والشقق والفلل والكنب والسجاد والمسابح والمدارس والمساجد والخزانات بالدمام و بالخبر و بالجبيل و بالقطيف تستخدم أجود أنواع المنظفات فهي افضل شركة نظافة بالخبر شركة غسيل مكيفات بالدمام
    شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالقطيف
    مؤسسة انوار طيبة-ارخص شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالقطيف والدمام والجبيل – افضل شركة تنظيف مكيفات السبلت بالدمام والقطيف، وتنظيف وصيانة وغسيل المكيفات سبليت ومركزية ومخفي وكاست ودولابي وشباك وتركيب جميع المكيفات شركتنا افضل شركة غسيل مكيفات بالدمام والجبيل تتعامل معكم شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالخبر

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  83. قررت شركة نقل أثاث بالقطيف أن تتولى هذه المهمة بنفسها، وتُسقط عبائها عن كافة عُملائنا؛ حيثُ أعدت فريق عمل شامل ومُتكامل من أكفاء الأفراد، وقامت بتزويدهم بكافة الآلات والمعدات اللازمة شركة نقل عفش بالخبر
    شركة نقل عفش بالقطيف
    إذا كُنت في حاجة إلى عملية نقل عفش منزلك؛ عليك فورًا الاتصال بخدمة عملاء شركة نقل عفش بالخبر شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل
    شركة نقل عفش بالاحساء

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  84. يمكن تعريف الشحن المحدود الذي تقدمه شركه نقل اثاث بالدمام بكونه ما يقتصر على نقل ما قد يحتاجه العميل من أثاث كالأجهزة الكهربائية أو الأثاث الخشبية حتى وإن كان لقطع غيرة ومدودة منه. شركة نقل عفش بالخبر
    نقل عفش بالخبر
    شركة نقل عفش فى بالخبر
    وجدير بالذكر أنه بعد الرفع يقوم العمال بتركيب الأثاث كما كان شركات نقل العفش بالخبر

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  85. عالميه الدمام- 0542613483 - افضل شركات نقل العفش بالمنطقه الشرقيه شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل
    هل تبحث عن شركة مناسبة للقيام بنقل عفش منزلك، هل تخشى من تجارب الأصدقاء المؤلمة مع شركات نقل العفش؟ شركة نقل عفش بالقطيف
    لا تقلق عزيزي العميل، فأنت الآن في المكان الصحيح، حيث جاءت إليك شركة نقل عفش بالدمام شركة نقل اثاث بالخبر

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  86. شركة نقل عفش بالدمام
    عالميه الدمام- 0542613483 - افضل شركات نقل العفش بالمنطقه الشرقيه شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
    ارخص شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
    شركة نقل اثاث بالجبيل
    أن الشركة تتمتع بالالتزام التام بمواعيدها، فلا تعمل على مخالفتها تحت أي ظرف من الظروف وهذا بداية من عملية الاتصال وحتى إنهاء الخدمة تمامًا، كما أن فريق العمل ذو حجم كبير نسبيًا نقل عفش بالخبر
    شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل
    لن تجد أجدر من شركه نقل عفش بالدمام قادرة على إتمام تلك المهمة حيث ثقة عملائها الكرام على المحك ولن تقبل تحت أي حال من الأحوال أن يخيب ظن العملاء شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل

    نقل عفش بالدمام
    نقل اثاث بالدمام

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